Doxycycline Hyclate


Indications

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain effectiveness of Doxycycline Hyclate Capsules, USP and other antibacterial drugs, Doxycycline Hyclate Capsules, USP should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

Treatment

Doxycycline is indicated for the treatment of the following infections:

  • Rocky Mountain spotted fever, typhus fever and the typhus group, Q fever, rickettsialpox, and tick fevers caused by Rickettsiae.
  • Respiratory tract infections caused by.
  • Lymphogranuloma venereum caused by.
  • Psittacosis (ornithosis) caused bya psittaci.
  • Trachoma caused by, although the infectious agent is not always eliminated, as judged by immunofluorescence.
  • Inclusion conjunctivitis caused by.
  • Uncomplicated urethral, endocervical, or rectal infections in adults caused by
  • Nongonococcal urethritis caused by.
  • Relapsing fever due to.

Doxycycline is also indicated for the treatment of infections caused by the following gram-negative microorganisms:

  • Chancroid caused byi.
  • Plague due toersinia pestis.
  • Tularemia due to.
  • Cholera caused bycholerae.
  • Campylobacter fetus infections caused by.
  • Brucellosis due tospecies (in conjunction with streptomycin).
  • Bartonellosis due to.
  • Granuloma inguinale caused by granulomatis.

Because many strains of the following groups of microorganisms have been shown to be resistant to doxycycline, culture and susceptibility testing are recommended.

Doxycycline is indicated for treatment of infections caused by the following gram-negative bacteria, when bacteriologic testing indicates appropriate susceptibility to the drug:


  • .
  • species.
  • species.
  • Respiratory tract infections caused byus influenzae.
  • Respiratory tract and urinary tract infections caused by species.

Doxycycline is indicated for treatment of infections caused by the following gram-positive microorganisms when bacteriologic testing indicates appropriate susceptibility to the drug:

  • Upper respiratory infections caused by.
  • Anthrax due to, including inhalational anthrax (post-exposure): to reduce the incidence or progression of disease following exposure to aerosolized.

When penicillin is contraindicated, doxycycline is an alternative drug in the treatment of the following infections:

  • Uncomplicated gonorrhea caused by.
  • Syphilis caused by.
  • Yaws caused bypallidum subspecies pertenue.
  • Listeriosis due to monocytogenes.
  • Vincent’s infection caused by.
  • Actinomycosis caused bylii.
  • Infections caused by species.

In acute intestinal amebiasis, doxycycline may be a useful adjunct to amebicides.

In severe acne, doxycycline may be useful adjunctive therapy.

Prophylaxis

Doxycycline is indicated for the prophylaxis of malaria due to in short-term travelers (<4 months) to areas with chloroquine and/or pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine resistant strains (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION section and Information for Patients subsection of the PRECAUTIONS section).

contraindications

This drug is contraindicated in persons who have shown hypersensitivity to any of the tetracyclines.

adverse reactions

Due to oral doxycycline’s virtually complete absorption, side effects of the lower bowel, particularly diarrhea, have been infrequent. The following adverse reactions have been observed in patients receiving tetracyclines:

Gastrointestinal: anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, glossitis, dysphagia, enterocolitis, and inflammatory lesions (with monilial overgrowth) in the anogenital region, and pancreatitis. Hepatotoxicity has been reported rarely. These reactions have been caused by both the oral and parenteral administration of tetracyclines. Rare instances of esophagitis and esophageal ulcerations have been reported in patients receiving capsule and tablet forms of the drugs in the tetracycline class. Most of these patients took medications immediately before going to bed (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Skin: toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, erythema multiforme, maculopapular and erythematous rashes. Exfoliative dermatitis has been reported but is uncommon. Photosensitivity is discussed above (See WARNINGS).

Renal toxicity: Rise in BUN has been reported and is apparently dose related (See WARNINGS).

Immune: Hypersensitivity reactions including urticaria, angioneurotic edema, anaphylaxis, anaphylactoid purpura, serum sickness, pericarditis, exacerbation of systemic lupus erythematosus, and drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS).

Blood: Hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, and eosinophilia have been reported.

Other: Bulging fontanels in infants and intracranial hypertension in adults (See WARNINGS).

When given over prolonged periods, tetracyclines have been reported to produce brown-black microscopic discoloration of the thyroid gland. No abnormalities of thyroid function studies are known to occur.

To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact West-Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp. at 1-877-233-2001, or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.

warnings

The use of drugs of the tetracycline class during tooth development (last half of pregnancy, infancy and childhood to the age of 8 years) may cause permanent discoloration of the teeth (yellow-gray-brown). This adverse reaction is more common during long-term use of the drugs, but it has been observed following repeated short-term courses. Enamel hypoplasia has also been reported. Use doxycycline in pediatric patients 8 years of age or less only when the potential benefits are expected to outweigh the risks in severe or life-threatening conditions (e.g., anthrax, Rocky Mountain spotted fever), particularly when there are no alternative therapies.

associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including doxycycline hyclate capsules, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of.

produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following the use of antibacterial drugs. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing use of antibacterial drugs not directed against may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibacterial treatment ofile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

Intracranial hypertension (IH, pseudotumor cerebri) has been associated with the use of tetracyclines including doxycycline hyclate capsules. Clinical manifestations of IH include headache, blurred vision, diplopia, and vision loss; papilledema can be found on fundoscopy. Women of childbearing age who are overweight or have a history of IH are at greater risk for developing tetracycline associated IH. Concomitant use of isotretinoin and doxycycline hyclate capsules should be avoided because isotretinoin is also known to cause pseudotumor cerebri.

Although IH typically resolves after discontinuation of treatment, the possibility for permanent visual loss exists. If visual disturbance occurs during treatment, prompt ophthalmologic evaluation is warranted. Since intracranial pressure can remain elevated for weeks after drug cessation patients should be monitored until they stabilize.

All tetracyclines form a stable calcium complex in any bone-forming tissue. A decrease in fibula growth rate has been observed in prematures given oral tetracycline in doses of 25 mg/kg every 6 hours. This reaction was shown to be reversible when the drug was discontinued.

Results of animal studies indicate that tetracyclines cross the placenta, are found in fetal tissues, and can have toxic effects on the developing fetus (often related to retardation of skeletal development). Evidence of embryotoxicity has also been noted in animals treated early in pregnancy. If any tetracycline is used during pregnancy or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus.

The antianabolic action of the tetracyclines may cause an increase in BUN. Studies to date indicate that this does not occur with the use of doxycycline in patients with impaired renal function.

Photosensitivity manifested by an exaggerated sunburn reaction has been observed in some individuals taking tetracyclines. Patients apt to be exposed to direct sunlight or ultraviolet light should be advised that this reaction can occur with tetracycline drugs, and treatment should be discontinued at the first evidence of skin erythema.

overdosage

In case of overdosage, discontinue medication, treat symptomatically and institute supportive measures. Dialysis does not alter serum half-life and thus would not be of benefit in treating cases of overdosage.

general medication guide

General

As with other antibacterial drugs, use of doxycycline hyclate capsules may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms, including fungi. If superinfection occurs, doxycycline hyclate capsules should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted.

Incision and drainage or other surgical procedures should be performed in conjunction with antibacterial therapy, when indicated.

Doxycycline offers substantial but not complete suppression of the asexual blood stages of strains.

Doxycycline does not suppress sexual blood stage gametocytes. Subjects completing this prophylactic regimen may still transmit the infection to mosquitoes outside endemic areas.

Prescribing doxycycline hyclate capsules in the absence of proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

description

Doxycycline Hyclate Capsules, USP, are an antibacterial drug synthetically derived from oxytetracycline. The structural formula of doxycycline monohydrate is

with a molecular formula of C22H24N2O8•H2O and a molecular weight of 462.46. The chemical designation for doxycycline is 4-(Dimethylamino)-1,4,4a,5,5a,6,11,12a-octahydro-3,5,10,12,12a-pentahydroxy-6-methyl-1,11-dioxo-2-naphthacenecarboxamide monohydrate. The molecular formula for doxycycline hydrochloride hemiethanolate hemihydrate is (C22H24N2O8•HCl)2•C2H6O•H2O and the molecular weight is 1025.89. Doxycycline is a light yellow crystalline powder. Doxycycline hyclate is soluble in water, while doxycycline monohydrate is very slightly soluble in water.

Doxycycline has a high degree of lipoid solubility and a low affinity for calcium binding. It is highly stable in normal human serum. Doxycycline will not degrade into an epianhydro form.

Each capsule for oral administration contains doxycycline hyclate equivalent to 50 mg or 100 mg of doxycycline (anhydrous). Inactive ingredients: lactose monohydrate, microcrystalline cellulose, magnesium stearate.

The 50 mg and 100 mg capsule shells contain: gelatin, diacetylated monoglycerides, sucrose fatty acid esters, glacial acetic acid, sodium lauryl sulfate, colloidal silicon dioxide, FD&C Blue #1 and titanium dioxide. The printing ink may contain: Shellac Glaze, Iron Oxide Black, N-Butyl Alcohol, Propylene Glycol, SDA 3A Alcohol, FD&C Blue #2, FD&C Red #40, FD&C Blue #1, D&C Yellow #10.

Doxycycline Hyclate Package Photos

About the Author

Truman Lewis
Truman has been a bureau chief and correspondent in D.C., Los Angeles, Phoenix and elsewhere, reporting for radio, television, print and news services, for more than 30 years. Most recently, he has reported extensively on health and consumer issues for ConsumerAffairs.com and FairfaxNews.com.